ISSUE 10

STEM CELLS IN TREATING ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE    Stem cells are essentially cells that are undifferentiated. This means that they haven’t undergone differentiation yet, a process which enables them to develop some sort of specialism. If you consider a root hair cell – it has specific adaptations which complement its function. A stem cell hasn’t undergone this process meaning it has…   By Vithusan Kuganathan

STEM CELLS IN TREATING ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

Stem cells are essentially cells that are undifferentiated. This means that they haven’t undergone differentiation yet, a process which enables them to develop some sort of specialism. If you consider a root hair cell – it has specific adaptations which complement its function. A stem cell hasn’t undergone this process meaning it has…

By Vithusan Kuganathan

issue 9

CLIMATE CHANGE AND ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION    It’s undeniable at this point that humans are having a significant negative impact on the earth. Many argue that climate change is a natural phenomenon – the earth has warmed up in the past and is continuing to do so. However, the IPCC – the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has plenty of evidence exemplifying the extent of anthropogenic climate change. The full extent of the future impacts is still up for debate…   By Vithusan Kuganathan

CLIMATE CHANGE AND ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION

It’s undeniable at this point that humans are having a significant negative impact on the earth. Many argue that climate change is a natural phenomenon – the earth has warmed up in the past and is continuing to do so. However, the IPCC – the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has plenty of evidence exemplifying the extent of anthropogenic climate change. The full extent of the future impacts is still up for debate…

By Vithusan Kuganathan

ISSUE 8

STRIDES IN HIV RESEARCH    HIV is a sexually transmitted disease. It can be passed through sexual contact and through the sharing of hypodermic needles, but there was essentially no treatment. HIV stands for human immuno-deficiency virus and is a disease which essentially attacks…   By Vithusan Kuganathan

STRIDES IN HIV RESEARCH

HIV is a sexually transmitted disease. It can be passed through sexual contact and through the sharing of hypodermic needles, but there was essentially no treatment. HIV stands for human immuno-deficiency virus and is a disease which essentially attacks…

By Vithusan Kuganathan

MEDICAL ETHICS - A GUIDE    Within this article, I’ll be aiming to cover a bit about the ethical side of medicine and some of the main dilemmas that doctors will commonly experience within their career. It’ll basically be a quick look into how to act correctly, with common sense…   By Deniz Kaya

MEDICAL ETHICS - A GUIDE

Within this article, I’ll be aiming to cover a bit about the ethical side of medicine and some of the main dilemmas that doctors will commonly experience within their career. It’ll basically be a quick look into how to act correctly, with common sense…

By Deniz Kaya

ISSUE 7

POLYGLU    In 2002, a Japanese Company established in 1993 founded Nippon PolyGlu Co. which uses a material called PolyGlu in order to purify contaminated water. PolyGlu is a flocculant that has both organic and inorganic characteristics and…   By Tanvi Vaghjiani

POLYGLU

In 2002, a Japanese Company established in 1993 founded Nippon PolyGlu Co. which uses a material called PolyGlu in order to purify contaminated water. PolyGlu is a flocculant that has both organic and inorganic characteristics and…

By Tanvi Vaghjiani

WHAT IS LEARNING?    Memory and your ability to learn are often fairly abstract concepts; however, there is a scientific basis to the activity of your brain and the consolidation of memory which contributes to one’s innate ability to learn. This article hopes to explain the…   By Vithusan Kuganathan

WHAT IS LEARNING?

Memory and your ability to learn are often fairly abstract concepts; however, there is a scientific basis to the activity of your brain and the consolidation of memory which contributes to one’s innate ability to learn. This article hopes to explain the…

By Vithusan Kuganathan

DDT & MALARIA    DDT, or dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, is an incredibly powerful insecticide that was used to fight malaria among troops during World War II and was later used as an agricultural pesticide. In 1948 Paul…   By Holly Goodrick

DDT & MALARIA

DDT, or dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, is an incredibly powerful insecticide that was used to fight malaria among troops during World War II and was later used as an agricultural pesticide. In 1948 Paul…

By Holly Goodrick

SCAR WARS - LIVER CIRRHOSIS    Scarring of the liver is due to long term damage to the organ, which leads to a condition known as fibrosis. This fibrosis occurs when the liver attempts to repair and replace damaged cells, resulting in the build up of large quantities…   By Deniz Kaya

SCAR WARS - LIVER CIRRHOSIS

Scarring of the liver is due to long term damage to the organ, which leads to a condition known as fibrosis. This fibrosis occurs when the liver attempts to repair and replace damaged cells, resulting in the build up of large quantities…

By Deniz Kaya

ORTHOTROPICS    Orthotropics is a branch of dentistry that specialises in treating malocclusion by guiding the growth of the facial bones and correcting the oral environment. This treatment creates more space for the teeth and tongue. The main focus of this approach…   By Ragul Gajendran

ORTHOTROPICS

Orthotropics is a branch of dentistry that specialises in treating malocclusion by guiding the growth of the facial bones and correcting the oral environment. This treatment creates more space for the teeth and tongue. The main focus of this approach…

By Ragul Gajendran

CHEMISTRY: A USEFUL SCIENCE    Existing in the world today are several, either currently or anticipatedly, devastating, life-threatening dilemmas. It is therefore imperative that action is taken swiftly if these problems are to be nullified, at least somewhat, for the good…   By Odera Umeugoji

CHEMISTRY: A USEFUL SCIENCE

Existing in the world today are several, either currently or anticipatedly, devastating, life-threatening dilemmas. It is therefore imperative that action is taken swiftly if these problems are to be nullified, at least somewhat, for the good…

By Odera Umeugoji

NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER TREATMENTS    Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is all epithelial lung cancer except small cell lung carcinoma. 85% of all lung cancers are NSCLC…   By Farhia Rashid

NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER TREATMENTS

Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is all epithelial lung cancer except small cell lung carcinoma. 85% of all lung cancers are NSCLC…

By Farhia Rashid

issue 6

THE SCIENCE BEHIND DREAMS    In its essence, a dream is a succession of images, ideas, sensations and feelings that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep, known as REM sleep stages. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (or REM Sleep) is a stage of deep sleep in which your eyes are rapidly moving in different directions and your body is immobile. Dreams can only occur in a state of REM Sleep, as an area of the brain called the…   By Charvi Jain

THE SCIENCE BEHIND DREAMS

In its essence, a dream is a succession of images, ideas, sensations and feelings that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep, known as REM sleep stages. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (or REM Sleep) is a stage of deep sleep in which your eyes are rapidly moving in different directions and your body is immobile. Dreams can only occur in a state of REM Sleep, as an area of the brain called the…

By Charvi Jain

issue 5

THERAPEUTIC HYPOTHERMIA    Hypothermia is a condition where the body’s temperature is lower than 37 degrees Celsius because the body loses more heat than it can produce. It can sometimes be fatal and around 20,000 people in the United Kingdom…   By Holly Goodrick

THERAPEUTIC HYPOTHERMIA

Hypothermia is a condition where the body’s temperature is lower than 37 degrees Celsius because the body loses more heat than it can produce. It can sometimes be fatal and around 20,000 people in the United Kingdom…

By Holly Goodrick

ARE YOU CAFFEINATED?    As a coffee addict, I find myself fascinated by the small brown beans from which it is made. Did you know, for example, that coffee is the world’s most commonly used psychoactive drug? Originating from Ethiopia, these beans made it…   By Emma Wei

ARE YOU CAFFEINATED?

As a coffee addict, I find myself fascinated by the small brown beans from which it is made. Did you know, for example, that coffee is the world’s most commonly used psychoactive drug? Originating from Ethiopia, these beans made it…

By Emma Wei

EPIGENETICS    Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve changes to underlying DNA sequence (a change in phenotype without a change in genotype). This later affects how cells read the genes…   By Farhia Rashid

EPIGENETICS

Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve changes to underlying DNA sequence (a change in phenotype without a change in genotype). This later affects how cells read the genes…

By Farhia Rashid

GRAVITY AND SPACE TIME    Ask anyone what gravity is and they’ll probably tell you the same thing: it’s a force, the most important force in our universe. A force that keeps everything working in harmony, the moon around the Earth…   By Charvi Jain

GRAVITY AND SPACE TIME

Ask anyone what gravity is and they’ll probably tell you the same thing: it’s a force, the most important force in our universe. A force that keeps everything working in harmony, the moon around the Earth…

By Charvi Jain

THE RIEMANN HYPOTHESIS    Recently, a renowned mathematician, Michael Atiyah, claimed to have solved the Riemann hypothesis, a 130-year old problem. A million dollars could be his as this problem is one of the seven millennium…   By Suvir Rathore

THE RIEMANN HYPOTHESIS

Recently, a renowned mathematician, Michael Atiyah, claimed to have solved the Riemann hypothesis, a 130-year old problem. A million dollars could be his as this problem is one of the seven millennium…

By Suvir Rathore

issue 4

HOW STEPHEN HAWKING REDEFINED COSMOLOGY    Stephen Hawking, arguably the icon of science in the 21st Century, shook up the world of cosmology with his renowned publications; “A Brief History of Time” being the first. His tenacity and persistence to change the world, despite his diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), was what...   By Devansh Marwaha

HOW STEPHEN HAWKING REDEFINED COSMOLOGY

Stephen Hawking, arguably the icon of science in the 21st Century, shook up the world of cosmology with his renowned publications; “A Brief History of Time” being the first. His tenacity and persistence to change the world, despite his diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), was what...

By Devansh Marwaha

NEUTRON STARS    When colossal stars, four to eight times the mass of the sun, explode in a Type IIa Supernova, they leave behind a super dense star (3x1017kg/m3) of roughly 1.4 times the mass of the sun but generally only 20 km across. Electrons have a half-integer spin (in the unit of the reduced Planck constant), and so they can be classed as fermions...   By Suvir Rathore

NEUTRON STARS

When colossal stars, four to eight times the mass of the sun, explode in a Type IIa Supernova, they leave behind a super dense star (3x1017kg/m3) of roughly 1.4 times the mass of the sun but generally only 20 km across. Electrons have a half-integer spin (in the unit of the reduced Planck constant), and so they can be classed as fermions...

By Suvir Rathore

ISSUE 3

THE LAKE NYOS DISASTER    In August 1986 at Lake Nyos in Cameroon, West Africa, a limnic eruption occurred. A cloud rich in carbon dioxide and water droplets rose at 100km per hour from the floor of the lake without warning. The onlookers would have seen a fountain of water shoot up 90m into the air. Carbon dioxide is 1.5 times...  By Holly Goodrick

THE LAKE NYOS DISASTER

In August 1986 at Lake Nyos in Cameroon, West Africa, a limnic eruption occurred. A cloud rich in carbon dioxide and water droplets rose at 100km per hour from the floor of the lake without warning. The onlookers would have seen a fountain of water shoot up 90m into the air. Carbon dioxide is 1.5 times...

By Holly Goodrick

MAN FLU - FACT OR FICTION?    For decades women have complained about the men in their lives being rendered immobile, moaning beings by a case of the ‘Man Flu’; however recent studies have shown this popular cultural archetype may actually be real. As defined in the Oxford dictionary the ‘Man Flu’...  By Serena Hart

MAN FLU - FACT OR FICTION?

For decades women have complained about the men in their lives being rendered immobile, moaning beings by a case of the ‘Man Flu’; however recent studies have shown this popular cultural archetype may actually be real. As defined in the Oxford dictionary the ‘Man Flu’...

By Serena Hart

QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT    Spin in the quantum world is the intrinsic angular momentum for an elementary particle, composite particle and atom nuclei. Fermions are particles with non-integer spin including leptons and quarks, the unit of which is the reduced Planck constant (h/2π), and bosons are particles with...  By Suvir Rathore

QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT

Spin in the quantum world is the intrinsic angular momentum for an elementary particle, composite particle and atom nuclei. Fermions are particles with non-integer spin including leptons and quarks, the unit of which is the reduced Planck constant (h/2π), and bosons are particles with...

By Suvir Rathore

BIOMECHANICS APPLIED TO BACK TRAINING    The back consists of 4 main muscles, the most prevalent being the  Latissimus Dorsi  (Lats) which contribute to back width and is used for  Shoulder Adduction and Extension , the  Trapezius  (Traps) contributes to back thickness, these are used for  Scapular elevation...   By Arjun Patel

BIOMECHANICS APPLIED TO BACK TRAINING

The back consists of 4 main muscles, the most prevalent being the Latissimus Dorsi (Lats) which contribute to back width and is used for Shoulder Adduction and Extension, the Trapezius (Traps) contributes to back thickness, these are used for Scapular elevation...

By Arjun Patel

ARE BIRDS ABLE TO USE FIRE?    It is highly suspected that birds of prey in the Australian Bush are deliberately starting fires to capture the fleeing animals. There are no animals other than humans that are recorded to have deliberately started a fire. However surprising it may sound to have birds as the 'third force'...  By Shai Kuganesan

ARE BIRDS ABLE TO USE FIRE?

It is highly suspected that birds of prey in the Australian Bush are deliberately starting fires to capture the fleeing animals. There are no animals other than humans that are recorded to have deliberately started a fire. However surprising it may sound to have birds as the 'third force'...

By Shai Kuganesan

ISSUE 2

HUMAN CLONING    Human cloning is a controversial topic despite whoever you ask. Every person has their own opinion on whether human cloning is ethical and whether it would be beneficial to society and science. Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of a human...  Serena Hart and Shai Kuganesan

HUMAN CLONING

Human cloning is a controversial topic despite whoever you ask. Every person has their own opinion on whether human cloning is ethical and whether it would be beneficial to society and science. Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of a human...

Serena Hart and Shai Kuganesan

BIOMECHANICS APPLIED TO LEG TRAINING     Biomechanics  can be used to identify the most efficient ways to train specific body parts for several purposes. To start, on the contrary to regimes many follow,  pre-fatiguing  the muscle has proven to detriment any further  metabolic stress  or response...  By Arjun Patel

BIOMECHANICS APPLIED TO LEG TRAINING

Biomechanics can be used to identify the most efficient ways to train specific body parts for several purposes. To start, on the contrary to regimes many follow, pre-fatiguing the muscle has proven to detriment any further metabolic stress or response...

By Arjun Patel

QUARK FUSION    Physicists use the standard model to describe the interactions between the fundamental elementary particles of our universe, which is split into three main sections:  Quarks  (matter), which come in 6 flavours that come in 3 different colours [1]  and mix to form colourless...  By Suvir Rathore

QUARK FUSION

Physicists use the standard model to describe the interactions between the fundamental elementary particles of our universe, which is split into three main sections: Quarks (matter), which come in 6 flavours that come in 3 different colours[1] and mix to form colourless...

By Suvir Rathore

ISSUE 1

BACTERIOPHAGE THERAPY    We are always coming up with new ways to treat new diseases. Take for example cancer; a form of disease involving abnormal cell growth, where damaged genetic information within a cell, likely as a result of a bad lifestyle is the main cause. In recent years we have come up with a variety of ways to treat cancer, many of which you may already know.  Bacteriophage therapy is simply another way of treating diseases, maybe even cancer, that hasn't...  Deniz Kaya

BACTERIOPHAGE THERAPY

We are always coming up with new ways to treat new diseases. Take for example cancer; a form of disease involving abnormal cell growth, where damaged genetic information within a cell, likely as a result of a bad lifestyle is the main cause. In recent years we have come up with a variety of ways to treat cancer, many of which you may already know.

Bacteriophage therapy is simply another way of treating diseases, maybe even cancer, that hasn't...

Deniz Kaya

APPLYING BIOMECHANICS TO STRENGTH TRAINING     Biomechanics   (the study of the mechanical laws relating to the movement or structure of living organisms)  can be split into two main categories:  Intrinsic biomechanics   (the study of how the body can perform tasks or movements in relation to the individual’s mechanical make-up)  and  extrinsic biomechanics   (the study of the most efficient way to perform a movement, relevant to sports, fitness and...   Arjun Patel

APPLYING BIOMECHANICS TO STRENGTH TRAINING

Biomechanics (the study of the mechanical laws relating to the movement or structure of living organisms) can be split into two main categories: Intrinsic biomechanics (the study of how the body can perform tasks or movements in relation to the individual’s mechanical make-up) and extrinsic biomechanics (the study of the most efficient way to perform a movement, relevant to sports, fitness and...

Arjun Patel

DO WE ALL ORIGINATE FROM EUROPE?    A set of ancient footprints have recently been discovered on a Greek island, bringing with it a wave of controversy regarding humanities ancestry. The footprints are supposedly 5.7 million years old but they appear to be made by one of of our Hominin (human or early form of human) ancestors. At the time, Hominins were said to be confined within Africa, but this new discovery  Shai Kuganesan

DO WE ALL ORIGINATE FROM EUROPE?

A set of ancient footprints have recently been discovered on a Greek island, bringing with it a wave of controversy regarding humanities ancestry. The footprints are supposedly 5.7 million years old but they appear to be made by one of of our Hominin (human or early form of human) ancestors. At the time, Hominins were said to be confined within Africa, but this new discovery

Shai Kuganesan